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Teiid Glossary


 
Contents

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

abstraction
Refers to the decoupling of how information is presented to information consumers (users or applications) from how the information is represented in underlying data sources. Abstraction is achieved through two key technical capabilities: federation and modeling.
Teiid provides information abstraction through the use of relational and XML views, which are defined in the Designer and packaged in VDBs for execution by the query engine.
access pattern
Constraints imposed on criteria for particular columns in order for a query to be processed. Often, these criteria are imposed by different (non-JDBC) data sources.
Teiid provides the means to define access patterns in models using the Designer, which are then enforced when processing queries by the query engine.
ACID (transactions)
The principles that define the characteristics of transactions in a two-phase commit system. These principles are:
  • Atomicity - 'All or none.' Changes to a data source are grouped as an indivisible unit, which either completely succeeds or fails and leaves the system in the original state before the changes were attempted.
  • Consistency - 'Data integrity.' Only valid data will be written to the data source. When the transaction ends, the source is once again in a consistent state, with no rules or constraints violated.
  • Isolation - Transactions are not aware of each other. No other transactions can see temporary inconsistencies that may occur during the processing of a transaction.
  • Durability - Once a transaction successfully completes, its effects are guaranteed to persist in the data source.
administration
The capability to configure, monitor, and manage the runtime operation of a system.
administrative API
An API for administering a system.
Teiid provides an Admin API that can be used to perform most of the functions available in the Enterprise Console.
administrator
A person who has privileges to administer a system.
There are several administrative roles that can configure and manage various aspects of the system.
alias (query)
In the context of a SQL query, an alias is a user-specified alternate name for referencing a table or column. Technically, these are known as 'output names' (for columns) and 'correlation names' (for tables), but they are both commonly referred to as 'aliases'.
API
Application Programming Interface. A well-defined programmatic means to access the functionality of a system.
A standard API for query access to Teiid is JDBC. Teiid also provides an Admin API for administering its products.
application server
A software system that hosts applications written to a standard specification. Java provides the J2EE standard to which Java application servers conform. Application servers often act as Web servers, hosting Web-based applications. So, Web and Web services-based applications defined in WAR files can be deployed to J2EE app servers such as JBoss.
architecture
Describes a software system at a high level. Two common types of architectures are client-server and service-oriented architecture (SOA).
authentication
Verification that a user attempting to access a system is allowed to access the system. The user tries to log on to the system using a set of credentials.
authorization
Access control to resources managed or accessed by a system.
Teiid  provides a way to control access to data sources, down to the column/element level.
Also known as entitlements.

B

batch
A set of records returned in response to a query.
batched updates (SQL)
The batch update feature allows multiple update operations to be executed at once as a single batch, rather than as independent operations. In some cases, this can greatly improve performance.
BLOB
Binary large object. This is a term commonly used in relational DBMS systems.
Teiid supports querying and updating of BLOBs and CLOBs.
bootstrap properties
The set of properties required for a system to start up.

C

choice (XML)
A node in an XML Schema that defines the possible set of XML elements that can be at that point.
classpath
The path that is used by the Java virtual machine when resolving dependencies required for an application to execute. Typically, the classpath specifies a semi-colon delimited list of JAR files containing bytecode for Java classes.
CLOB
Character large object. This is a term commonly used in relational DBMS systems.
Teiid supports querying and updating of CLOBs and BLOBs.
column (relational)
A structural entity in a relational system corresponding to an atomic value. Columns are contained by tables. Columns have a type (such as 'char', 'integer', etc); this is often referred to as a datatype. Record values for a column must conform to the column's defined type.
command
A specification of an operation to be performed. In SQL, a command is issued in terms of a SQL statement.
The term "query" is often used as a generic form of command.
component
A software module that can be plugged into another system and configured to achieve some desired functionality. The Query Engine is a component that provides optimized query capabilities to applications.
configuration
The definition of essential and customizable parameters that control how a system executes. Configuration is typically considered an administrative function, to be performed by administrators.
Teiid provides a variety of ways to configure its products, including the Admin API and the Enterprise Console.
connection
A logical or physical binding between one software component or system and another. Physical connections are often over TCP/IP sockets.
Connections in Teiid are created through JDBC, ODBC, or SOAP.
connection pooling
Use of a shared set of connections to a data source for efficiency and performance. When the system needs a connection, it obtains one from the pool, then returns it to the pool when finished with it.
Teiid's connector framework provides customizable connection pooling capabilities to connectors. Connectors can be pooled based on a variety of 'keys', including security credentials.
connector (aka connector type)
A connector is a software component that can interface with a particular system for the purposes of data access. The connector mediates between the accessing system and the accessed system, connecting to the accessed system, and translating requests and responses between the two systems. Some vendors refer to these as adapters.
Teiid provides an extensible connector framework into which pre-defined or custom connectors can be plugged, providing access to any data source.
See Connector Concepts for more detailed information on connectors and connector bindings.
connector binding
A runtime component of the query engine that binds a connector type to a particular data source.
connector capabilities
Functionality that is supported by a connector. For example, a connector may support "outer join" operations, or the "concat" function. The connector capabilities define the set of operations that can be pushed down to the data source a connector is bound to.
connector framework
A part of the Teiid architecture where connectors can be defined and utilized.
connector type
See connector.
console (aka Enterprise Console)
A tool used for administering a system.
context criteria (XML)
A special form of criteria that can be applied when querying an XML View.
costing (query)
The use of relative values of accessing and performing operations on data, used to execute a query command in the most efficient manner possible.
credentials
Information used to verify that a person or resource can access a system during the process of authentication. Typically, a username and password are used as credentials for logon to a system.
criteria (query)
Constraints specified in a query.
CRUD (query)
Acronym describing the four most common data manipulation operations in relational systems: create, read, update, and delete.
cursor (query)
An abstraction of a result set that shows only the row at the current location and allows for scrolling forward (and possibly backwards) through the cursor.

D

data service
A class of services that are specifically related to accessing, integrating, and understanding the semantics of data or information.
In the context of a Web services architecture, data services correspond to Web services.
Teiid provides extensive support for data services, for both Web services and service-oriented architectures.
For more information on Teiid and data services, see:
data source
Any system that contains or can emit data.
Teiid provides a connector framework for integrating data sources.
datatype
The type that a particular data value, such as for a relational column or an XML element or attribute, must conform to. Datatypes are defined in schemas.
Teiid  Designer supports the definition of semantic datatypes based on the XML Schema Datatypes specification.
DBMS
Database management system.
Teiid is not itself a database management system, although it can appear to be one to a system that uses the JDBC API to access data from multiple sources through a single interface.
decryption
The conversion of encrypted text back into a human-readable ('cleartext') form.
Teiid uses encryption and decryption when sending and storing password information.
dependent join
A special type of join used to optimize performance in a federated, multi-source query. In a dependent join, the two tables involved are accessed sequentially, rather than in parallel. The records from the primary table matching the criteria are retrieved first, then the key values are used to query the dependent table, minimizing the data returned from the seconds table. The resulting records are then joined.

E

Eclipse
Eclipse is a generic application framework and a graphical plugin-based workbench provided by the Eclipse Foundation.
The Teiid Designer is developed using Eclipse.
EII
Enterprise Information Integration. This is a market segment defined by MetaMatrix in 2000, targeted at providing integration using a federation approach. JBoss has subsequently leveraged its experience in EII to provide solutions for defining data services for service-oriented architectures.
encryption
The conversion of textual information into a form that cannot be read or processed in a meaningful manner without the modified text being decrypted.
Teiid uses encryption to hide passwords used to interface with data sources.
entitlements
Define information that a particular user is entitled or authorized to view or access. Typically defined in terms of CRUD operations on a set of metadata resources such as tables or columns.
extensible
Refers to the capability of a system to have its functionality extended by users, without the provider of the system making the changes.
Teiid offers extensibility in many forms. Teiid provides a connector framework and connector development kit for plugging custom connectors into the query engine. Custom scalar functions can be defined and integrated into both the modeling and execution engine. Similarly, custom simple datatypes can be defined and used for modeling your information. JBEDSP provides an extension point for integrating a custom membership service, for authentication.

F

federated query
A query that unifies information from multiple disparate sources.
Users issue federated queries against a virtual database.
federation
Unifying or integrating of information from multiple data sources, making the information appear as if was in a single data source accessible through a single API. Federation is a key technical capability required to provide information abstraction.
A virtual database is used to represent a consistent set of models defining the information that can be federated. The VDB is defined in the Designer and deployed to the query engine. Federated queries can be issued against the deployed VDB, and are processed by the query engine.
See also integration.
firewall
Software that prevents unauthorized access to an internal network.
Products such as Teiid must be able to be connected to through a firewall, and must be able to connect to data sources through a firewall.
foreign key
A type of relationship in relational models, involving a reference of one or more fields to a primary key in another table.
Teiid supports the import and modeling of foreign keys for relational data sources, as well as for relational views.
full outer join
A type of operation in relational systems that joins information from two tables if matching records exist in either table plus additional records for all unmatched rows (left and right side) in each table. A full outer join is basically an inner join plus any unmatched records in both the left and the right tables.
This is a combined form of a left outer join and a right outer join.
function
Teiid SQL supports two kinds of functions: scalar and aggregate. Scalar functions operate on 0 or more values in a row and return a single value (examples: 5 + 2, length('string')). Aggregate functions operate on a collection of values across many rows and return a single value (examples: COUNT(*), SUM(price*quantity), MIN(birthday)).
The query engine allows a user to define custom scalar functions.

G

H

hash join (join)
A type of join algorithm in which keys from one set of records are used to match up with the keys from the other set.

I

inner join
A join that returns only records that match, based on some criteria.
See also outer join.
insert (SQL)
The SQL operation used to 'add' records to a table in a relational data source. The 'C' in CRUD.
integration
Tying information together to use for a purpose. In its simplest sense, integration refers to joining data or unioning data, often from multiple sources. This is often referred to as federation. More powerful integration is provided when federated queries and procedures are encapsulated into virtual views. This provides a level of decoupling of consuming applications from physical data storage, and is often referred to as abstraction.
Teiid provides model-based integration capabilities - both federation and abstraction - with its products. Consistent models of data sources, views, Web services are bundled into a container called a virtual database, or VDB. A VDB is deployed to the query engine for runtime execution.
interoperability
The ability of systems to work together. For a sofwtare system, this can cover a broad range of system interactions, from operating systems to application servers to other software systems. Often, interoperability is achieved through the use of well-defined APIs, or by formal specifications defining the expected behavior when two systems work together in some context. As an example, the ability of different software systems to work together in a Web services architecture is defined by the WS-I specification.
A different facet of interoperability addresses the semantic aspects of systems 'working' together. For example, if one system thinks an 'address' includes a postal code, and another does not, then there is a semantic mismatch between those systems which may introduce problems when they exchange data.
Teiid address both facets of interoperability with a number of different systems. Designer provide tooling for defining the semantic relationships between information entities.

J

JAR
Java application archive. A zip file format used for Java applications and libraries. A JAR file contains bytecode for Java classes, as well as other resources required by those classes.
An application's dependency on a set of JAR files is specified using the Java classpath.
JDBC
A Java standard API for interfacing with relational systems. Similar in concept and basic functionality to ODBC.
Teiid provides a JDBC interface to its query engine.
join
A type of operation in relational systems that merges records from two different tables together based on matching join criteria specified on fields in the two tables. Often used synonymously with the term 'inner join'.
See also outer join.
JTA
Java Transaction API. "JTA specifies standard Java interfaces between a transaction manager and the parties involved in a distributed transaction system: the resource manager, the application server, and the transactional applications." (Sun)
JTS
"Java Transaction Service (JTS) specifies the implementation of a transaction manager which supports the Java Transaction API (JTA) 1.0 Specification at the high-level and implements the Java mapping of the OMG Object Transaction Service (OTS) 1.1 Specification at the low-level." (Sun)
JVM
Java virtual machine. Software environment in which Java bytecode is run. A JVM runs as a separate process on the operating system.

K



L

left outer join
A type of operation in relational systems that joins 'secondary' information if it exists with records from a 'primary' table, where the first table specified (the 'left' one) is the primary one. A left outer join is basically an inner join plus any unmatched records in the left table.
See also right outer join and outer join.
license
Legal agreement controlling usage rights for a software product. Teiid is distributed under the LGPL.  See license for more.
logon
The process users follow for establishing an authenticated connection to a system using credentials.

M

manifest
A file inside an archive file (such as a JAR or WAR) that defines the contents of the archive.
mapping (XML)
A transformation from one structural form to another. This is often used to refer to the transformation from relational form to XML form.
merge join (join)
A type of join algorithm in which records are joined as they are processed, in a single pass. This algorithm requires that the records be sorted first.
This algorithm will often perform best for medium to large size result sets, where the tables are about of equal size.
metadata
Data about data. Metadata is used to describe the structural characteristics or schema of information and how it is stored, as well as statistical information about the data values associated with a particular set of data, and connection information for retrieving data from a data source.
model
A representation of the structure and characteristics of a set of information, and relationships between the information and other sets of information.
Teiid uses models to define the structure and characteristics of data sources and views. Models also define the mappings - in the form of transformations - to go from sources to views, or from one set of views to another.
Models are visualized using UML diagrams.
Models get bundled together in a consistent validated package called a VDB. A VDB provides an abstract interface for interacting with multiple data sources as if they were a single source.
See Model Concepts for more detailed information on models and modeling.
model class
A class of models that is used as a template for defining model instances of a particular type. Some model classes are relational, XML Service, and Web service. Also known as a "metamodel".
model type
A category of models that distinguishes them by some essential characteristic, orthogonal to the model class classification. Some model types are source, for models representing data sources, and views, for models representing abstractions above the source level.
modeler (aka Designer)
A tool used for defining and maintaining models. Also used to refer to a person who uses a modeling tool.
modeling
The definition of models used for defining the structure and characteristics of data sources for federation, and for defining the structure of views for abstraction.
Teiid provides data services that are model-based. Models are defined and maintained using the Designer, and are subsequently executed through the query engine.

N

nested join (join)
A type of join algorithm in which the records of each table are looped over in two loops, one nested inside the other.
This algorithm will often perform best for small to medium size result sets, where one table is much smaller than the other.

O

ODBC
Open Database Connectivity. A standard API for interfacing with relational systems. Similar in concept and basic functionality to JDBC.
optimizer (query)
See planner.
outer join
A type of operation in relational systems that joins information from two tables if matching records exist, but also includes records from one or both sides that do not have a match in either table. An outer join is basically an inner join plus any unmatched records in the left and/or right table.
Outer join is also used to collectively mean left outer join, right outer join, or full outer join.

P

parser (query)
The component in the query engine's processing pipeline responsible for tokenizing the user's input command and translating the user-specified text into an internal object form, using metadata information.
partial results
Teiid provides a unique capability to obtain results from relational systems even in the event of data source unavailability. This is especially useful when unioning information from multiple sources, or when doing a left outer join, where you are 'appending' columns to a master record but still want the record if the extra info is not available. Further details.
planner (query)
The component in the query engine's processing pipeline responsible for creating the query plan that will subsequently be executed by the query processor. Also known as the optimizer, because it is responsible for determining the optimal plan using costing information. One common optimization technique in a federated query planner is propagating criteria to all data sources.
prepared statement
A SQL command that can be planned ahead of time for efficiency, then executed multiple times thereafter. Typically, a prepared statement will have placeholders for parameter values that must be specified when the statement is executed.
primary key
A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies a single record in a relational table. A primary key is often referenced by other tables through foreign keys.
Teiid supports the import and modeling of primary keys for relational data sources, as well as for relational views.
procedure
A programmatic specification of how to do something. In relational DBMS's, stored procedures provide the means to define data access logic. Teiid provides the capability to define and execute virtual procedures.
processor (query)
The component in the query engine's processing pipeline responsible for executing the query plan created by the query planner.
Some processing (typically crossing over multiple sources) is performed within the query engine, and other processing is pushed down to the data sources.
pushdown
A technique used in query planning to most efficiently execute federated queries. All operations that can be performed by a data source, as defined by the connector capabilities of that source, are pushed down to that source so that it can execute them in the most efficient means possible, using physical indexes.

Q

query
A generic term used to refer to a command issued against a system to retrieve (or update) data from a data source. A query is processed by a query engine.
The term is also used to refer to a read-only command issued to retrieve information from a data source. In relational systems, a query is executed using a select statement.
Teiid provides the capability to perform queries across multiple sources - using a single statement. This is known as federation.
query engine
A software component that processes queries, retrieving information from one or more systems and merging that information together using relational algebra or XQuery.
query plan
An representation of a command or query determined by a query engine for executing the command in the most efficient manner possible. Query plans are determined by a query planner using costing.
Distributed Query Planning for more detailed information on working with query plans in a distributed system.

R

record (relational)
A set of values corresponding to the columns in a relational table. Also known as tuples in relational algebra.
relational
A data format or representation characterized by table structures accessible using relational algebra.
relationship
An association between two different metadata entities. A relationship entity is itself a type of metadata entity.
Teiid supports model type-specific relationships, such as foreign keys for relational models, and transformations between models, including mappings from relational to XML models. In addition, Teiid supports the definition of generic, typed relationships between any metadata entities. 
resolver (query)
The component in the query engine's processing pipeline responsible for resolving all identifiers, functions, and datatypes using metadata information.
In  Teiid , query resolution uses the metadata contained in models defined in a VDB.
result set (query)
The response from a database or query engine containing the results of a user command. For a query-type command (using SQL select), the result set contains a table structure, with the columns specified in the select clause and zero or more records that matched the specified criteria in the where clause.
Teiid can also return XML results in response to SQL queries through JDBC or ODBC. In this case, there is only one column in the result set, named xml, containing zero or more records for each XML document resulting from the specified criteria.
rewriter (query)
The component in the query engine's processing pipeline responsible for revising the syntax of a command so that it can be processed more efficiently. The rewriter handles things like eager function evaluation (2 + 2 --> 4) and mathematical simplification (x + 2 = 4 --> x = 2).
right outer join
A type of operation in relational systems that joins 'secondary' information if it exists with records from a 'primary' table, where the second table specified (the 'right' one) is the primary one. A right outer join is basically an inner join plus any unmatched records in the right table.
See also left outer join and outer join.

S

scalar function
A type of function that takes zero or more scalar arguments and returns a single scalar value.
schema
A definition of the structural characteristics of a set of information. The information within a schema, such as tables and columns for relational systems, is a type of metadata. For XML systems, schemas are often represented using XML Schema.
select (SQL)
The SQL operation used to perform read operations from a table in a relational data source.. The 'R' in CRUD.
select into (SQL)
The SELECT ... INTO (SQL) command allows a user to execute a (SELECT) and (INSERT) the results into a table. The insert is done in bulk and will be much faster than doing a SELECT, walking through the rows, and performing an INSERT on each row.
semantics
Pertaining to the meaning behind some piece of information or data.
There are many ways of capturing semantic information:
server
A software component that runs independently in one or more processes on an operating system. Servers must be managed.
service
Something that performs some desired business operation. Typically, a service is defined in terms of a name, zero or more inputs parameters, zero or more output and/or return parameters.
A service is a fundamental concept in a service-oriented architecture.
service-oriented architecture
A software system architecture based on the concept of services.
See SOAs.
session
All user interaction with Teiid occurs in the context of a user session, which is bound to a JDBC connection. Closing the JDBC connection terminates the session. Sessions can be viewed and terminated through the Admin API.
SOA
See service-oriented architecture.
SOAP
Simple Object Access Protocol. The messaging protocol used in Web services. See W3C specifications.
Teiid supports SOAP access to Web Services in JBEDSP.
source
See data source.
SQL
Structured Query Language. A standard query language that operates on 'tuples', defined by the ANSI and ISO organizations. All relational DBMSs support some flavor of SQL.
Teiid supports the most common data manipulation (CRUD: create, read, update, delete) functions of SQL-92.
SSL
Secure Socket Layer. A protocol for securely sending information over a network connection.
stack (architecture)
Used in describing at a coarse-grained level the major architectural pieces of a system. For service-oriented architectures, an 'SOA stack'.
staging table (XML)
A special construct used for optimizing data retrieval from sources when mapping from relational to XML format.
statement
A specification of an operation to be performed. In SQL, a command is issued in terms of a SQL command.
The term "query" is often used as a generic form of command.
stored procedure
A type of procedure available in relational DBMS's.
streaming
The transmission of data between software components in an incremental manner.
Teiid uses streaming when returning XML documents, CLOBs, and BLOBs.

T

table (relational)
A two-dimensional structure in a relational system consisting of columns and records. Records are uniquely identified by primary keys. Sets of one or more fields, called foreign keys, can contain references to the primary keys of records in other tables.
tool
A software component that can be run by a user to perform some task.
Teiid offers a variety of tools to work with its products, including the CDK and admin shell.
transaction
A transaction groups a set of database operations together and they are either applied or fail as a unit. Transactional integrity is based on the ACID principles.
The JDBC API supports local (single database) and XA (multi database) transactions. Teiid supports XA transactions across multiple XA-enabled databases.
transaction manager
A software component or system that controls the execution of distributed transactions.
Teiid uses a transaction manager to coordinate XA transactions.
transformation
A formal mapping from one model to another, for the purposes of executing those mappings to perform federated queries using a query engine. In addition to providing formal, executable mapping information, transformations also provide useful semantic information on how two or more models are related.
Teiid allows for the definition of transformations from relational form to either relational or XML form. Relational-to-relational transformations are defined using standard SQL. XML transformations are often referred to as mappings. Transformations are themselves defined in terms of models, using the Designer.
trusted payload
The trusted payload is a Serializable Java object that can be passed in and used in authentication by the query engine and/or a custom connector.
Teiid supports two types of trusted payloads. The session payload is passed in when establishing a JDBC connection. It is used on every subsequent command issued against that connection. The command payload is passed in with a particular command, and is only used for that particular command.
tuple (relational)
In relational algebra, a set of values resulting from a SQL expression. When referring to values exposed directly to users, such as the rows in a table or in a result set, these are usually referred to as records.

U

UDDI
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration. "The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) specifications define a registry service for Web services and for other electronic and non-electronic services. A UDDI registry service is a Web service that manages information about service providers, service implementations, and service metadata." (UDDI.org).
UML (modeling)
Unified Modeling Language. A standard language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting software or information systems. UML is a standard defined and maintained by the OMG.
Teiid uses UML for representing models or physical data sources, views, and Web services.
union
A type of relational data operation involving the merging of like-structured records. This is accomplished in SQL using the union operation.
update
The SQL operation used to perform 'change' operations on a table in a relational data source. The 'U' in CRUD. Also often used as a generic term for all modification operations (insert, update, and delete, the 'CUD' in CRUD).

V

VDB
Virtual database. A package of consistent, validated models used for the purposes of information integration. Application programmers issue federated queries against a VDB.
See VDB Concepts for more detailed information on virtual databases.
VDB archive
A file that contains a VDB. The manifest defines the source and view models that comprise the VDB.
view
A virtual construct for accessing information in a well-defined format. Views are defined in models.
The actual data is not stored in a view; it is manifested from data persisted in data sources, or from other views, by means of transformations. Views encapsulate the transformation definitions needed to federate data, and provide the basis for model-based abstraction.
Views may be of any form.  Teiid supports the definition of both relational and XML views.
Views are often read-only, but can support performing updates through update procedures.
virtual procedure
A procedural model construct used to explicitly define data access logic. Conceptually the same as stored procedures in relational DBMS's
Teiid provides the capability to define and execute virtual procedures.

W

W3C
World Wide Web Consortium. A standards organization that coordinates, maintains, and promotes standards for the World Wide Web.
WAR
Web application archive. A zip file format used for Java Web and Web services-based applications. Applications defined in a WAR file can be deployed to Web servers and J2EE application servers.
Web server
A software system that hosts Web pages, Web applications, and Web services applications. All J2EE application servers can be used as Web servers.
Web service
A service in a Web services architecture. A Web service consists of one or more Web service operations. A Web service is described by WSDL.
Web service operation
A Web service operation is analogous to a procedure. It encapsulates some processing to be performed, in this case in the context of a Web services architecture.
For WS-I compliant document-literal SOAP it takes a single XML document as input and returns a single XML document as output, both wrapped in the body of an (XML) SOAP message.  Teiid's Web services use a WS-I compliant document-literal representation.
For RPC SOAP, it takes a single XML document containing the input parameters as input and returns one or more XML documents as output, both wrapped in the body of an (XML) SOAP message.
Web service operations are grouped into Interfaces within a Web service.
Web services
"Web services provide a standard means of interoperating between different software applications, running on a variety of platforms and/or frameworks." (W3C Web Services architecture).
Web services architecture
A software architecture based on services executable using Web protocols, defined by the W3C Web Services architecture.
WS-I
Web service interoperability. The WS-I is a web services profile maintained by the Oasis organization to advance the interoperability of web services. The profile is more specific about certain aspects of the relevant web services standards (WSDL, SOAP) in order to allow web service components to interoperate across platforms and languages.
WSDL
Web Service Definition Language. A specification maintained by the W3C. See WSDL 1.1 and WSDL 2.0 specifications.

X

XA
A specification for distributed transactions. A data source that conforms to the XA specification is said to be "XA-compliant".
Teiid can coordinate distributed transactions across multiple XA-compliant data sources.
XML
Extensible Markup Language. A text-based exchange format maintained as a standard by the W3C.
XML Service
A service that returns information in XML format. An XML Service is a more general form of a Web service.
In Teiid, an XML Service can take any number of scalar input parameters. If there is exactly one input of type XMLLiteral (xml in SQL), representing an XML document, the XML service is equivalent to a document-literal Web service. XML Services can be executed as procedures through JDBC and ODBC, or through SOAP if they have a form conforming to a Web service definition (one XML input).
XML Schema (XSD)
"XML Schemas express shared vocabularies and allow machines to carry out rules made by people. They provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents." (W3C). XML Schemas are defined in XML Schema Definition (XSD) files.
XPath (XML)
XML Path Language. A language for addressing parts of an XML document which is designed to be embedded in other languages such as XSLT or XQuery.
Teiid uses XPath as part of its procedure language used for defining Web service operations.
XQuery (XML)
A query language used for retrieving information from and manipulating XML data sources (represented by the XML Service model class). XQuery is to XML sources as SQL is to relational sources.
Teiidsupports the ad-hoc querying of XML sources, or relational sources exposed as XML, using XQuery.
XSLT (XML)
XSL Transformations. A language used for transforming XML documents into other XML documents.
Teiid allows the specification of XSLT when submitting queries against XML Views. The XSLT is applied to the XML document(s) that result from the query, and the resulting document(s) are returned to the client application.

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tei·id (TEE-id)

adj.     pertaining to a family of tropical American whip-tailed lizards noted for speed and agility.
n.     a set of open source enterprise information integration tools noted for their ability to rapidly create data services that can quickly adapt to changes in your IT environment.

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